The Role of Human Nature in Miseries and Hobbes’ Solution in “Leviathan”

In Part I of Leviathan­ (especially but not limited to Chapter 13), Hobbes argues that human beings are the cause of their own miseries in the state of nature. Why does he think so? How does the establishment of “Leviathan” save us from these miseries, according to Hobbes? All things considered, do you accept this solution to our miseries? If you do, explain why. If you don’t, explain why not. General outline: Have a clear thesis and a clear structure.Develop arguments that are (1) logical and (2) well-supported by textual evidence.Cite textual evidence accurately and properlyInterpret textual evidence charitably.Consider and refute possible disagreements that your readers may raise to your thesis.Avoid spelling and grammatical issues.Stay within the page limit (US letter, 5 pages, double-spaced, 1-inch margin, 12 font size).Not plagiarize.Not fabricate textual evidence.Not cite unverified internet sources (such as Wikipedia) to make your points. **You do not have to cite secondary sources, but I please ask to try to keep the sources directly from Leviathan only. Share on Facebook Tweet Follow us Sample Answer   Title: The Role of Human Nature in Miseries and Hobbes’ Solution in “Leviathan” Thesis Statement: In Part I of “Leviathan,” Hobbes argues that human beings are the cause of their own miseries in the state of nature due to their inherent self-interest and competition. He posits that the establishment of the Leviathan, a sovereign authority, is crucial to saving individuals from these miseries by enforcing social contracts and maintaining order. While Hobbes’ solution may seem drastic, it presents a compelling argument for the necessity of a strong central authority to prevent chaos and ensure societal peace. Introduction: In “Leviathan,” Thomas Hobbes delves into the state of nature, a hypothetical scenario where individuals exist without a common authority to govern them. Hobbes posits that in this state, individuals act based on their self-interest and are driven by a perpetual state of competition, leading to a chaotic and insecure existence. This essay will delve into Hobbes’ argument regarding the role of human nature in causing miseries in the state of nature, the establishment of the Leviathan as a solution to these miseries, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of this solution. Human Nature as the Cause of Miseries: Hobbes asserts that human beings, driven by their innate self-interest and desire for power, engage in a constant state of competition that results in conflict and insecurity. In Chapter 13 of “Leviathan,” Hobbes famously states that in the state of nature, life is “nasty, brutish, and short,” highlighting the harsh reality of human existence without a governing authority. He argues that individuals pursue their self-interest without regard for others, leading to a perpetual state of war where life is marked by fear and insecurity. Textual Evidence: Hobbes writes, “In such condition there is no place for industry because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth” (Chapter 13). This passage illustrates how the absence of a common authority hinders progress and development due to the focus on self-preservation and competition. Refutation of Possible Disagreements: Some may argue that human nature is not inherently selfish and competitive, but rather cooperative and compassionate. However, Hobbes’ observations on human behavior in the state of nature paint a stark picture of individuals driven by self-preservation and power-seeking tendencies. While altruism exists, Hobbes emphasizes the dominant role of self-interest in shaping human interactions without a central governing authority. The Role of Leviathan in Mitigating Miseries: To counteract the chaos and insecurity of the state of nature, Hobbes proposes the establishment of the Leviathan, a sovereign authority vested with supreme power to enforce social contracts and maintain order within society. According to Hobbes, individuals willingly surrender some of their freedoms to the Leviathan in exchange for protection and stability. Through this social contract, the Leviathan becomes the ultimate authority responsible for upholding laws, resolving disputes, and ensuring peace among individuals. Textual Evidence: Hobbes states, “For by this authority, given him by every particular man in the Commonwealth, he hath use of so much power and strength conferred on him that, by terror thereof, he is enabled to form the wills of them all to peace at home and mutual aid against their enemies abroad” (Chapter 17). This passage underscores the role of the Leviathan in uniting individuals under a common authority to prevent conflicts and establish societal order. Refutation of Possible Disagreements: Critics may argue that granting absolute power to a central authority like the Leviathan could lead to tyranny and abuse of power. However, Hobbes contends that without a strong sovereign to maintain order, individuals would revert to a state of war and insecurity. The Leviathan’s role is not to oppress but to safeguard individuals from their own destructive tendencies in the absence of a common authority. Evaluation of Hobbes’ Solution: Hobbes’ solution to human miseries in the state of nature through the establishment of the Leviathan presents a compelling argument for the necessity of centralized authority in maintaining social order. While his depiction of human nature may seem pessimistic, it reflects a pragmatic understanding of individual motivations and behaviors in the absence of governance. The Leviathan serves as a bulwark against chaos and violence, offering a framework for societal cohesion and stability. Conclusion: In conclusion, Hobbes’ exploration of human nature in “Leviathan” sheds light on the inherent self-interest and competition that drive individuals in the state of nature. Through the establishment of the Leviathan, Hobbes presents a solution to mitigate these miseries by creating a central authority capable of enforcing social contracts and ensuring peace within society. While some may find Hobbes’ solution authoritarian, it offers valuable insights into the importance of governance in curbing human tendencies towards conflict and insecurity. Ultimately, Hobbes’ Leviathan stands as a compelling argument for the necessity of a strong central authority in maintaining societal order and safeguarding individuals from their own destructive inclinations.       This question has been answered. Get Answer


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