FIND A SOLUTION AT American Essay Writers
APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 1 of10APA REFERENCING7th EDITIONReferencing is a standard convention used by academic and professional communities to inform readers ofthe sources of information used in a piece of written work. There are many referencing formats (e.g. Harvard,APA, MLA, Vancouver) and it is critical that you use the one prescribed by the people you are writing for.Check what style your College / topic requires. This quick guide covers how to reference common sourcetypes using the American Psychological Association (APA) system (7th edition). More complete examplesof APA 7th referencing can be found here: https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/reference-examples or see thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edn, 2019).OVERVIEWYou must cite all your references in order to:• acknowledge your sources• allow the reader to verify the data / information• allow the reader to consult your sources independently for their own purposes• show the reader the depth and breadth of your reading.References must be provided wherever you quote (use exact words), paraphrase (use other people’s ideasusing your own words), summarise (use main points of someone else’s opinions, theories or data) or useother people’s data or figures. Your references may be sources of information such as books, periodicals,websites, newspapers, government reports, legal cases, electronic recordings (CD, DVD, television) orbrochures. Note that some of these sources are considered more credible than others. The main elementswhich need to be recorded in the APA system are the author, date, title and where the source is found.The APA referencing system consists of two components, both of which are required:1. THE IN-TEXT CITATIONThis is the short in-text reference to the source of the information e.g. Maguire (2018) or (Maguire, 2018).2. THE REFERENCE LISTThis is a list at the end of the written text of all references cited within. In this case it contains all thedetails of the reference rather than the short version used in the in-text citation. One item might look likethis: Maguire, E. (2018). Girls, autobiography, media: Gender and self-mediation in digital economies. Springer.KEY CHANGES BETWEEN APA 6th and APA 7th EDITIONSThe release of the APA 7th Edition has included a dedicated webpage providing referencing examples. Thefollowing table is not a comprehensive list of changes. A more thorough guide to the requirements andexamples can be found: https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/reference-examples.NEW IN APA 7TH
• 3 or more authors: list the first author’s surname followed by ‘et al.’ from the firstin-text citation of the text (unless this causes ambiguity with another reference,e.g. two or more authors share the same surname)• Secondary sources: include date of original work if known• Guidelines for citing+ Traditional Knowledge and Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples+ quotations from research participants
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• Multiple authors: List surname and initials of up to 20 authors for each source.If more than 20 authors, list the first 19, then ellipsis (…) and the final author• E-books: publisher required but not the platform or device• Location of publisher: no longer required• URLS: ‘Retrieved from’ no longer required unless a retrieval date is required• DOI: ‘DOI’ descriptor not required. Use DOI hyperlink for URL
Referencing categories have been expanded and templates examples provided,including for social media, audio-visual materials, webpages, lecture notes, PowerPointslides etc. Online examples provided here:https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/reference-examples
IN-TEXT CITATIONSThe APA’s in-text citations provide at least the author’s last name and the date of publication. For directquotations, a page number must be provided. This is also encouraged (but not required) if it will assist areader to locate a paraphrased passage in a long work such as a book. The location of this referencedepends on the form of the citation – see the first example on the following page.In-text citations can take one of two forms – they can be a necessary part of the sentence (known as a‘narrative citation’) using a signal phrase, which introduces the author or work, or they can stand separatefrom it in brackets (parenthetical citation). Depending on which way you are using the citation, the placementand content of the bracketed information changes. If the citation is an essential part of the sentence, then thebrackets go around the year only.For example (narrative citation):Smith (2003) emphasised the need for an understanding of soil condition.Alternatively, it could be written with the citation placed at the end (parenthetical citation):There is a critical need to understand soil condition (Smith, 2003).In this form the brackets go around both the name and theyear. You can use both of these formats in your writing.TENSESWhen using narrative citations to discuss other authors’ work, the APA 7 style guide recommends using thepast or present perfect tense.For example (past tense underlined):Weinstein, Sumeracki and Caviglioli (2019) suggested that the notion of “learning styles” can limit students’ perceptionsof learning.For example (present perfect underlined):Studies have found that adult day health centres allow carers respite from caring for relatives with dementia (Gaugleret al. 2003; Zarit et al. 2011).When discussing the implications of results or previous statements, use the present tense. A guide to the useof verb tense according to APA 7 style can be found here: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammarguidelines/grammar/verb-tense
SEE THE GUIDE ON INTEGRATING EVIDENCE
APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 3 of10APA REFERENCING7th EDITIONNote: These items have been updated in APA 7th Edition and differ from APA 6th Edition.The following section shows how in-text citations are used under different circumstances.The table below refers to both hard copy and electronic sources. A guide to APA in-text citations can be foundat: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations
Quotes should appear word-for-word the same as the original and be enclosed in quotation marks (“…”).Ordinarily, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed bythe date of publication in parentheses. Put the page number (preceded by “p.”) in parentheses after thequotation.Hart (1996) wrote that some primatologists “wondered if apes had learned Language, with a capital L”(p. 109).If the signal phrase does not name the author, place the author’s last name, the year, and the page numberin parentheses after the quotation. Use commas between items in the parentheses:Hart (1996) wrote that some primatologists “wondered if apes had learned Language, with a capital L”(p. 109).If the quote is longer than 40 words, you do not need quotation marks. Instead, it must be presented as anindented block on a new line below the text. Acknowledge the author, year and the page number inparenthesis after the final full stop.If the quotation runs across two pages in the original text, use “pp.” and an en-dash (“–”) for a range ofpages (pp. 126-127).Chen (2006) claims “the optimal time for using coffee beans is between 2 and 4 weeks after roasting” (pp.21-22).Note: See the Integrating Evidence Guide for more information about how to format quotes.
SUMMARY OR APARAPHRASE BASICFORMAT
Include the author’s last name and the date either in a signal phrase introducing the material or inparentheses following it.According to Hart (1996), researchers took Terrace’s conclusions seriously, and funding for languageexperiments declined.Researchers took Terrace’s conclusions seriously, and funding for language experiments soon declined (Hart,1996).
A WORK WITH TWOAUTHORS
Name both authors in the signal phrase or parentheses each time you cite the work. In the parentheses, use“&” between the authors’ names; in the signal phrase, use “and”.Greenfield and Savage-Rumbaugh (1990) have acknowledged that…Kanzi’s linguistic development was slower than that of a human child (Greenfield & Savage-Rumbaugh,1990).
A WORK WITHTHREE OR MOREAUTHORS
When identifying work done by three or more authors, for the first and all subsequent citations use the firstauthor’s name followed by “et al.” and the date. The phrase “et al.” in Latin and means “and others”.The chimpanzee Nim was raised by researchers who trained him in American Sign Language by mouldingand guiding his hands (Terrace et al., 1979).Terrace et al. (1979) trained the chimpanzee Nim in American Sign Language by moulding and guiding hishands.
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If the author is a government agency or organisation, name the organisation in the signal phrase or in theparenthetical citation in the same way you would if it were a person.According to the Language Research Centre (2000), linguistic research with apes has led to new methodsof treating humans with learning disabilities such as autism and dyslexia.If the organisation has a familiar abbreviation, you may include it in brackets the first time you cite thesource.The national guideline for alcohol consumption is for no more than two standard drinks per day (NationalHealth and Medical Research Council [NHMRC], 2009).The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) advises that people under the age of 18should not drink alcohol (2009).
TWO OR MORE WORKSIN THE SAMEPARENTHESES
When your parenthetical citation names two or more works, put them in the same order that they appearin the reference list (i.e. alphabetically), separated by semicolons.Researchers argued that the apes in the early language experiments were merely responding to cues(Sebeok & Umiker-Sebeok, 1979; Terrace, 1979).
CHAPTERS WRITTEN BYDIFFERENT AUTHORSIN AN EDITED BOOK
Some books are put together by an editor or editors and consist of chapters written by different authors.In this case, cite the author(s) of the chapter, not of the book. So, if you used a particular chapter which waswritten by Facelli which was part of a book edited by Conran and Duckhouse in 2015, the reference wouldbe Facelli (2015).
If you use a source that was cited in another work (a secondary source), name the original source in yoursignal phrase. If the date of the original work is known, include that too. In parenthesis, list the secondarysource (the one you found it in) and its date, preceded by the words “as cited in”. List the secondary sourcein your reference list. Secondary sources should be used sparingly, as it is best to find the original work ifat all possible. In the following example, Carey & Stefaniak is the secondary source (i.e. the source thatyou have direct access to):Learner satisfaction increases with goal attainment which in turn increases self-efficacy perceptions (Schunk1991, as cited in Carey & Stefaniak, 2018).Schunk (1991, as cited in Carey & Stefaniak, 2018) suggests learner satisfaction increases with goalattainment which in turn increases self-efficacy perceptions.
Interviews, letters, e-mail, and other person-to-person communications should be cited as follows:One of Patterson’s former aides, who worked with the gorilla Michael, believes that he was capable ofjoking and lying in sign language (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2000).Note: personal communication is not included in the reference list.
TRADITIONALKNOWLEDGE OR ORALTRADITIONS OFINDIGENOUS PEOPLES
The manner of citing Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples varies depending onhow the information has been accessed. If the information has been recorded (e.g. book, audio, interviewtranscript), cite in-text and include a reference list entry according to the appropriate source type.If the information has not been recorded, a variation of personal communication may be used. As much aspossible, provide: full name, Indigenous nation or group, location, personal communication, and date ofcorrespondence.We spoke with Anna Grant (Haida Nation, lives in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, personalcommunication, April 2019) about traditional understandings of the world by First Nations Peoples inCanada. She described . . .Be sure to maintain the integrity of Indigenous perspectives. Ensure information is accurate and appropriateto share before citing. Terms related to Indigenous Peoples must be capitalised (e.g. Kaurna, Wurundjeri,Traditional Custodian).Note: as this is a form of personal communication, it is not included in the reference list.
Within the text, state that the quote is from a research participant. Protect the identity of the participantsby referring to them by pseudonyms or nicknames, roles, descriptive phrases, or case numbers. Forformatting, follow the same guidelines as other quotations.One participant, “Jane”, a forty-year-old nurse from Townsville, noted that she felt “overwhelmed by the number ofnew cases this year.”Note: as participants are part of original research, they are not included in the reference list.
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Where possible, use the author-date style, as you would with any other source. For audio-visual materialthe author is usually the director, producer or host. For further help ascertaining who the author of anelectronic work or website is, please refer to the Seventh Edition Publication Manual of the AmericanPsychological Association or APA website.Note: The Seventh Edition Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is available in theFlinders University Library.
COMMON IN TEXT REFERENCING ISSUES
If the author is unknown, use the title of the work in the place of the author’s name. Use italics for titleswhich are italicised in the reference list. Use double quotation marks around the title if no italics arerequired in the reference list.Chimpanzees in separate areas of Africa differ in a range of behaviours. An international team ofresearchers has concluded that many of the differing behaviours are cultural, not just responses to varyingenvironmental factors (“Chimps”, 1999).In the rare case when “Anonymous” is specified as the author, treat it as if it were a real name:(Anonymous, 2001). In the list of references, also use the name Anonymous as author.
When the date is unknown, APA recommends using the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”).Attempts to return sign-language-using apes to the wild have had mixed results (Smith, n.d.).
APA ordinarily requires page numbers for direct quotations, and it recommends them for long summariesor paraphrases. When an electronic source lacks stable numbered pages, your citation should include (ifpossible) information that will help readers locate the particular passage being cited. When a documenthas numbered paragraphs, use the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation “para.” (or “paras.”– plural):(Hall, 2001, para. 5).If neither a page nor a paragraph number is given and the document contains headings, cite theappropriate heading and indicate which paragraph under that heading you are referring to:According to Kirby (1999), some critics have accused activists in the Great Ape Project of “exaggeratingthe supposed similarities of the apes [to humans] to stop their use in experiments” (Shared Path section,para. 6).When quoting from an audio-visual work (YouTube/TED Talk etc), use a time stamp to mark the beginningof the quotation instead of page numbers.In his TED Talk on the things which contribute to a good life, Waldinger claims that “living in the midst ofwarm relationships is protective” for our health (Waldinger, 2015, 4:54)
TWO OR MORE WORKSBY THE SAME AUTHORIN THE SAME YEAR
When your list of references includes more than one work by the same author in the same year, uselowercase letters (“a”, “b” and so on) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use thosesame letters with the year in the citation:Research by Kennedy (2000b) has yielded new findings concerning…
In-text citations of legislation do not include an author. Instead, the short title of the legislation appears initalics followed by the jurisdiction in brackets. If necessary, refer to the section of the legislation. Note, theyear is included in the title. For example:According to s. 1.14 of the Sex Discrimination Act 1984. (Cth), it is unlawful for an employer to discriminateagainst a person based on their sex or sexual orientation.
FORMAT FOR SOURCETYPE IS NOT LISTED INAPA
If the work you want to cite and include in your reference list does not match any specific example in theAPA style manual, choose an example of the type of work which is most similar and adapt the formataccordingly.
APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 6 of10APA REFERENCING7th EDITIONNote: These items have been updated in APA 7th Edition and differ from APA 6th Edition.In APA style, the alphabetical list of works cited, which appears at the end of the paper, is titled “References”.Every work cited in the text must be listed. Each entry usually contains four main elements: author(s), year ofpublication, title, and source/publishing data, in this order. The publishing data for a book or monographconsists of the name of the publishing company; for a journal article it consists of the volume and issuenumbers, page numbers, and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) or Uniform Resource Locators (URL) ifapplicable.Observe all details: capitalisation, punctuation, use of italics, and so on. Keep the list in alphabetical orderby authors’ last names; if a work has no author, list it alphabetically it by its title. The first element of eachentry is important because citations in the text of the paper refer to it and readers will be looking for it inthe alphabetised list. The date of publication appears immediately after the first element of the entry.BOOKS
BASIC FORMAT FORA BOOK
Author, A. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle (2nd ed.). Publisher Name.Highmore, B. (2001). Everyday life and cultural theory. Routledge.
Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. Russell SageFoundation.
AUTHORED BOOKWITH EDITOR CREDITEDON COVER
Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed.). Anchor.
BOOK REPUBLISHEDIN TRANSLATION
Singer, I. B. (1998). Shadows on the Hudson (J. Sherman, Trans.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux.(Original work published 1957)Note: cite translated works in the language in which it was translated. To cite a work that is inanother language, provide the author, date, title, and source of the work in the original languageas well as a translation of the title in square brackets after the title and before the period.
EDITION OTHER THANTHE FIRST
Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). University ofChicago Press.
ARTICLE OR CHAPTERIN AN EDITED BOOK
Meskell, L. (2001). Archaeologies of identity. In I. Hodder (Ed.), Archaeological theory today (pp.187-213). Polity Press.
SINGLE VOLUME OFMULTIVOLUME WORK
Ford, B. (1989). The Cambridge guide to the arts in Britain: Vol 4 The seventeenth century.Cambridge University Press.
Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B. A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.). WashingtonSquare Press. (Original work published 1623)
JOURNALS AND PERIOICALS
BASIC FORMAT FOR AJOURNAL ARTICLE
Author, A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), startpage-end page.
ONLINE JOURNALARTICLE(DOI available)
Lewandowsky, S., Cook, J., Fay, N., & Gignac, G. E. (2019). Science by social media: Attitudestowards climate change are mediated by perceived social consensus. Memory & Cognition, 47(8),1445-1456. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-019-00948-y
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JOURNAL ARTICLEFROM A RESEARCHDATABASE (no DOI)OR IN PRINT
Gleason, B., & Von Gillern, S. (2018). Digital citizenship with social media: Participatory practicesof teaching and learning in secondary education. Journal of Educational Technology & Society,21(1), 200-212.
ONLINE JOURNALARTICLE LOCATED ON AWEBSITE (no DOI)
Newnham, E. A., Titov, N., & McEvoy, P. (2020). Preparing mental health systems for climate crisis.The Lancet Planetary Health, 4(3), e89-e90.https://www.cci.health.wa.gov.au/Research/Publications
DeAngelis, T. (2020, November 1). Music’s power over our brains. American PsychologicalAssociation, 51(8), 24. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2020/11/news-music-power
Raloff, J. (2001, May 12). Lead therapy won’t help most kids. Science News, 159, 289-292.Note: month and day are not included in the in-text citation.
Harris, R. (2020, November 12). Conflict threatens global health security as children miss out on lifesaving vaccines. https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/conflict-threatens-global-healthsecurity-as-children-miss-out-on-life-saving-vaccines-20201111-p56dn7.htmlNote: month and day are not included in the in-text citation.
Haney, D. Q. (1998, February 20). Finding eats at mystery of appetite. The Oregonian, pp. A1,A17.Note: month and day are not included in the in-text citation
Frazer-Carroll, M. (2019, May 8). Joy as well as struggle [Review of the book Girl, Woman, Otherby B. Evaristo] The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/may/08/girl-womanother-by-bernardine-evaristo-reviewNote: month and day are not included in the in-text citation.
WEBPAGE WITH ANINDIVIDUAL AUTHOR
Cherry, K. (2020, July 19). Tips for overcoming procrastination. Verywell Mind.https://www.verywellmind.com/tips-for-overcoming-procrastination-2795714Note: include the most specific publication date possible. This means citing the date a work was lastupdated if this information is available. Retrieval date is only necessary if the content is likely to beupdated.
WEBPAGE WITH ANORGANISATION ORGROUP AS AUTHOR
World Health Organisation. (2020, May 20). Asthma. https://www.who.int/news-room/factsheets/detail/asthmaNote: include the most specific publication date possible. This means citing the date a work was lastupdated if this information is available. Retrieval date is only necessary if the content is likely to beupdated.
WEB DOCUMENTS(e.g. PDFs)
World Health Organisation. (2007). Global surveillance, prevention and control of chronicrespiratory diseases: A comprehensive approach.https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43776/9789241563468_eng.pdf;jsessionid=6F512A96178B4E6F71CC6486715BC719?sequence=1
ONLINE POSTING(e.g. blog, forum,discussion post)
Furber, G. (2020, October 6) What is an exam wrapper and how might it improve yourperformance? Student Health and Wellbeing. https://blogs.flinders.edu.au/student-health-and-wellbeing/Sondhaus, L. [Lawrence_Sondhaus]. (2020, November 13). Ask Me Anything – Lawrence Sondhaus– Author of World War One: The Global Revolution [Online forum post].https://www.reddit.com/r/history/comments/jsze0x/ask_me_anything_lawrence_sondhaus_author_of_world/Note: if the author’s real name and screenname are available, include the real name followed bythe screenname in square brackets. If the real name is unknown, use the screenname withoutbrackets.
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Kaufmann, W. J., III, & Comins, N. F. (1998). Discovering the universe (Version 4.1) [Computersoftware]. New York: Freeman.Note: Standard programs such as Word, SPSS, Photoshop, do not require a reference.
ONLINE VIDEO (E.G.YOUTUBE, VIMEO)
TED (2016, April 7). Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator. [Video].https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arj7oStGLkUUrban, T. (2016, February). Inside the mind of a master procrastinator. [Video]. TED Conferences.https://www.ted.com/talks/tim_urban_inside_the_mind_of_a_master_procrastinatorNote: the person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, evenif they did not create the work. For example, a TED talk viewed on YouTube lists TED as the author.The same TED talk published on the TED site lists the speaker as the author.
IMAGE FROM A WEBSITE
Nickolls, T. (1981) Machine time Madonna [Painting]. Art Gallery of South Australia.https://www.agsa.sa.gov.au/collection-publications/collection/works/machine-timemadonna/23950/Note: If the title of the work is unknown, provide a brief description in square brackets.Donovan, R. (n.d.) [Photograph of a wolf at a riverbed] National Geographic.https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2020/10/gray-wolves-taken-off-endangeredspecies-list-in-controversial-move/#/mm8341_150919_201943.jpgNote: if the name of the work in unknown, provide a brief description in square brackets.
Mars, R. (Host). (2020, April 22). Masking for a friend [Audio podcast episode]. In 99% Invisible.
DISSERTATION ORTHESIS FROM ADATABASE
Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons fromMilgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation, University of WisconsinMadison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
DISSERTATION ORTHESIS PUBLISHEDONLINE(not in a database)
Hutcheson, V.H. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian,gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master’s thesis, The College of William & Mary].William & Mary Digital Archive.https://digitalarchive.wm.edu/bitsrtream/handle/10288/16594/HutchesonVirginia2012.pdf
Australian Government Productivity Commission & New Zealand Productivity Commission. (2012).Strengthening trans-Tasman economic relations.https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/ausstralia-new-zealand/report/trans-tasman.pdf
REPORT FROM APRIVATEORGANISATION
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eatingdisorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC
CONFERENCE PAPER(published in proceedings)
Bowker, N., & Tuffin, K. (2002). Users with disabilities’ social and economic development throughonline access. In M. Boumedine (Ed.), Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference onInformation and Knowledge Sharing (pp. 122–127). ACTA Press
Melanti, B. G. (1982, August 16-21). Programmers’ attitudes toward computer crime: The case in HongKong [Paper presentation]. 10th World Congress of Computer Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Soderbergh, S. (Director). (2000). Traffic [Film]. Gramercy Pictures.
Day, L (Reporter), & Selvaratnam, N. (Producer). (2020, September 30). The class of 2020 (Season60, Episode 45) [Television series episode]. In S. Neighbour (Executive producer) Four Corners.Sydney, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.Note: include the writer(s), reporter(s), director(s), and/or producer(s) as the author
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Daniels, G., Schur, M., Klein, H., Miner, D., Sackett, M., Holland, D. & Goor, D. (ExecutiveProducers). (2009–2015). Parks and Recreation [Television series]. Deedle-Dee Productions;Fremulon; 3 Arts Entertainment Universal Television.
School of Humanities, Flinders University (2003). Professional English course book, semester 2.[ENGL 1001]. Flinders University
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2018). Code of conduct for nurses.http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professionalstandards.aspx
Noralin (2020). In MIMS Online.https://www.mimsonline.com.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=&PreviousPage=&SearchType=&ID=133680001_2
Hefler, M., Liberato, S. C., & Thomas, D. P. (2017), Incentives for preventing smoking in childrenand adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008645.pub3
Sex Discrimination Act 1985 (Cth) s. 1.14 (Austl.).Note: If you are referencing an Australian legislation, you may want to use the AGLC 4th, whichcan be obtained fromhttps://law.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/3181325/AGLC4-with-Bookmarks-1.pdf. Please check with your lecturer to find out if this is the preferred method when referencingAustralian legislation.
EXAMPLES OF FORMAT FOR DIFFERENT TYPES AND NUMBERS OF AUTHORSIN THE REFERENCE LISTThe format of the “author” part of the reference is dependent on a variety of factors. The examples belowhelp identify these differences. Note that the full reference is not given here for the sake of brevity – onlythe author and date.
Highmore, B. (2001). Everyday life and cultural theory. Routledge.
List up to and including 20 authors by last names followed by initials. Use an ampersand (&)instead of “and”.Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). University ofChicago PressIf there are more than 21 authors, list the first nineteen, insert three ellipsis points (…) between the19th and final author.McDuff, C., Smith, J., Kensington, K., Jones, S., Coughlan, S., Bortolin, L., Witte, M., Scott, A.,Newport, A., Jensen, K., Wutzler, J., van Staden, I., McLean, J., Bergsma, G., Dowman, B., Petrie,K., Higgens, D., McCloud, R., Jessop, L., …Duncan, P. (2017). An introduction to quantitative analysisin finance. Houghton
When the author is an organisation, begin with the name of the organisation.American Psychiatric Association (2000).
TWO OR MORE WORKSBY THE SAME AUTHOR
Use the author’s last name for all entries. List the entries by year, the earliest first.Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Title. Where resource is found – depending on reference type.Schlechty, P. C. (2001). Title. Where resource is found – depending on reference type.
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TWO OR MORE WORKSBY THE SAME AUTHORIN THE SAME YEAR
List the works alphabetically by title. In the parentheses, following the year, add “a”, “b” and soon. Use these same letters when giving the year in the in-text citation. “a” is the one first cited.Kennedy, C. (2000a). Group dynamics. Title. Where resource is found – depending on reference type.Kennedy, C. (2000b). Share-taking in small groups. Title. Where resource is found – depending onreference type.
JOURNAL ARTICLESFROM ONLINEDATABASES
In general, it is no longer necessary to include database information, because this can change overtime, and database aggregators further confuse the issue. However, some archival documents canonly be found in certain electronic databases, such as ERIC or JSTOR. If the document is difficult tolocate through its primary publisher, give the URL for the home page of the database.
ONLINE SOURCES ANDTHE USE OF DOIS
If you use a source you have found online, you must include information that will enable the readerto locate the same source. Until recently, this was done by stating the URL. Recently, DOIs (DigitalObject Identifiers) have been introduced. DOIs are attached to each document and stay with it,even if the URL of the document changes. All DOIs start with the number 10, followed by a dot, afour- digit number, a slash, and then an alphanumeric string. Note that a DOI will start with“https:/doi.org/”. Further, a full stop is not used after the DOI.Example: https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200410001676305If you have a DOI and you want to find the document, you can either go tohttp://www.crossref.org/ and enter it in the search box, or add the entire DOI string afterhttp://dx.doi.org/. If a document has a DOI, you should use this in your reference list (seeexamples, below). If a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed.If the document does not have a DOI, you should state the complete URL of the home page of thejournal or the publisher of the book or report. Make certain that the link works.Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (such as with wikipages).
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