Peer responses week 7 | Homework help

Peer Responses Week 7
HSE 470: Modern Terrorism
Response #1 (Johnathan): The United States has employed a heavy military response approach to combat terrorism in Africa this started with the United States Department of Defense securing agreements with a vast number of countries to set up forward operating sites (FOSs) and main operating bases (MOBs) these would serve as operation hubs from where United States forces would be able to respond quickly in the event of crisis. Countries with FOSs and MOBs are Senegal, Sao Tome, Principe, Liberia, Ghana, Gabon, Zambia, Namibia, and South Africa. U.S. equipment, personnel, and supplies were pre-positioned at these sites additionally, U.S. air assets have also been pre-positioned across the African continent. However, given the spread of extremism in the Horn of Africa revolving around Somalia the United States also started engaging in surveillance and reconnaissance operations in January of 2002. Additionally, later in 2002, the U.S. Department of Defense established the Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) this task force was based in Camp Lemonier, Djibouti. Then in June 2003, the United States established the East African Counter-Terrorism Initiative (EACTI) and pledged US$100 million toward the EACTI. The EACTI provided counter-terrorism training and equipment to countries such as Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. Additionally, due to the growing threat in Somalia, the US Department of Defense also provided AMISOM with US$650 million dollars in training, logistics support, and equipment since 2007. Furthermore, the U.S. has provided an additional US$100 million since 2011. 
The response of the United States to counter terrorism is not without its critics. Many wonder how all of this funding and preparation could still result in many things going wrong in Africa such as US support not preventing Boko Haram from declaring a caliphate in Northern Nigeria or the Malian army being trained and funded by Washington still resulting in Mali falling to Islamist. Many have the perspective that despite all the training and the preparations and still the US still failing in its approach to countering terrorism in Africa is due to ignorance of local cultures, ignorance of the state in the African context, ignorance of history, and finally ignorance of African militaries. For these reasons, many believe that military involvement from the United States only seems to create more problems than it solves, and due to that belief many believe that the United States needs to desperately rework its approach to its handling of the situations in Africa. 
Al-Shabaab has proven to be willing and able to conduct terrorist attacks well outside of the borders of its stronghold of Somalia. For example, Al-Shabaab once attempted to down a plane with a concealed laptop bomb. However, the bomb was not strong enough to down the plane. Nevertheless this and many other attacks have demonstrated Al-Shabaabs yearning to attack westerners. Cotinued recruitment by Al-Shaabaab will undoubtedly increase its efficiency at orchestrating and conduction these terrorist attacks thus threatening the United States. 
Works Cited
Solomon, H. (2015). Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in Africa. Springer Nature.
Al-Shabaab. Counter Extremism Project. (n.d.).

Response #2 (Ramada): The strategic approach of the United States to terrorism in Africa involves a multifaceted approach aimed at addressing the root causes of extremism, enhancing regional security cooperation, and building the capacity of African governments to counter terrorist threats. This approach includes diplomatic engagement, development assistance, intelligence-sharing, military support, and targeted counterterrorism operations. One of the significant threats to the United States from terrorist organizations in Africa is posed by Al Shabaab, particularly in the Horn of Africa region. Al Shabaab, an Islamist militant group based in Somalia, has demonstrated the capability to recruit individuals from the United States and other Western countries, radicalizing them and potentially facilitating their involvement in terrorist activities both domestically and abroad. The group’s recruitment efforts, especially targeting vulnerable individuals through online propaganda and social media, pose a direct threat to U.S. national security interests by potentially inspiring or enabling attacks on U.S. soil or against U.S. interests abroad. Assessing the U.S. response to countering terrorism in Africa, it involves a combination of military operations, intelligence gathering, capacity building, and diplomatic engagement. The United States works closely with African partner nations, regional organizations such as the African Union, and other international allies to disrupt terrorist networks, enhance border security, strengthen governance and rule of law, and promote economic development and opportunity as long-term solutions to extremism. Additionally, the U.S. supports programs aimed at countering violent extremism, including efforts to counter radicalization and recruitment by groups like Al Shabaab. While progress has been made in degrading terrorist capabilities and reducing the threat posed by groups like Al Shabaab, challenges persist, and a comprehensive and sustained approach is necessary to effectively address the complex and evolving terrorist landscape in Africa.
Department of Homeland Security. (2019). Department of Homeland Security Strategic Framework for Countering Terrorism and Targeted Violence.
‌Country Reports on Terrorism 2022. (2022). United States Department of State.
HSE 460: European Union
Response #1 (Gregory): The European Coast and Border Guard also known as Frontex, plays a role in addressing immigration and trafficking in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean Sea region. By supporting countries like Spain and Italy, Frontex aims to stop illegal migrants and traffickers, as seen through the EU’s documented 760,000 sea rescues between 2015 and 2019 (Kubicek, 2021).
Despite these efforts, unauthorized immigration and the reception of refugees in Europe, can introduce security concerns, such as the risk of terrorism. Specific groups with ties to extremist beliefs or criminal networks, present heightened risks in this scenario. The politicization of migration could further escalate tensions, and add to security dilemmas (Kubicek, 2021).
Additionally, the contentious practice of sending migrants to North Africa, to detention facilities controlled by Libyan militias, has sparked worries about human rights violations and migrant well being. Despite endeavors to bolster border protection measures, tens of thousands of migrants still find ways to enter the EU mainly via routes across the Mediterranean or Aegean Seas (Kubicek, 2021). 
The European Coast and Border Guards significant role in managing immigration and trafficking highlights the need for improvement in security measures and addressing the root causes of migration due to its intricate nature and the various reasons that drive migrants.
Kubicek, P. (2021). European politics (3rd ed.). Routledge. 
Response #2 (Tanika): The European Coast and Border Guard Agency (Frontex) is crucial in mitigating illegal immigration and trafficking by overseeing the security of Europe’s external borders. Frontex supervises the operations of EU member states to monitor and restrict entry points, conduct border patrols, and battle smuggler networks. Frontex attempts to prevent irregular migration and disrupt criminal activity along Europe’s borders by collecting information, conducting surveillance operations, and cooperating with foreign nations. 
Illegal immigration and the reception of illegal migrants in Europe may increase security threats, especially terrorism. While the vast majority of migrants leave violence, persecution, or poverty in search of safety and better prospects in Europe, there is fear that a tiny number may contain persons with evil intent, such as terrorists or politicized individuals (Jovanov, 2023). These people may use open borders and the confusion of migratory patterns to enter Europe unnoticed or blend into refugee communities. 
Various groups present security hazards in the context of illegal immigration and refugee reception. Extremist organizations like ISIS and al-Qaeda are ready to infiltrate refugee flows and attack Europe. Far-right extremist groups have also exploited immigration to promote racism and violence among migrants and minorities. Again, organized criminal networks engaged in people trafficking and smuggling may cooperate with terrorist groups or use migrants for illegal purposes, heightening security concerns. 
To address these concerns, European nations have a diversified strategy that includes stronger border controls, information sharing, collaboration with source and destination countries, and integration strategies to create social cohesion and combat radicalization. However, reconciling humanitarian commitments with security imperatives remains a difficult task for European policymakers, necessitating comprehensive plans that successfully handle both migration management and terror activities.

Jovanov, I. (2023). ILLEGAL MIGRATION AS A SECURITY THREAT AND CHALLENGE. South East European Journal of Sustainable Development, 7(3).
HSE 450: Individual and Cultural Perspectives of Terrorism Radicalization
Response #1 (Andrew):  The Department of Homeland Security was created after September 11th 2001 as a response to the threat of continued acts of terror. The Department of Homeland Security consolidated multiple agencies under the umbrella of Homeland Security to improve communications, facilitate investigations and improve structure. The Cabinet level Secretary of Homeland Security took precedence over other agencies such as FEMA that now fell under the Homeland Security umbrella.
In the wake of 9-11, missions deemed critical to the protection of the homeland were placed under the charge of the DHS. Mission 1 is the prevention of terrorism and enhanced security. The failures and breakdowns that allowed for September 11th to happen in the first place were deemed a top priority. Mission 2: Border Security. DHS was charged with overseeing the safeguard of trade, travel, and securing points of entry into the U.S. by air, land and sea. The discovery, disruption and dismantling of international crime and terror falls under mission 2. Similar to border security is mission 3: Enforcement and administration of Federal Immigration Law. The DHS has prioritized combating human smuggling and human trafficking as well as facilitating legal immigration. Mission 4 is the protection of Cyberspace. DHS has been charged with securing civilian government computer systems, working with industry and others to reduce vulnerabilities, provide warnings, and respond to cyber incidents. The fifth mission is to ensure an adequate response to disasters. Along with disaster preparation and response comes the recovery phase which is a significant portion of the fifth mission. FEMA was initially a U.S. Cabinet level department until the post 9-11 restructuring under the DHS. FEMA’s role is to prepare and respond to disasters and that includes response to terror attacks. Understanding that terror attacks can produce mass casualties, FEMA should be prepared to respond to mass casualty, or mass fatality incidents. The National Infrastructure Protection Plan laid out the need to identify and protect critical infrastructure. The NIPP identifies sixteen infrastructure sectors that are vital to homeland security. Areas of key resources include Energy, water supply, food and agriculture and the plans identified and how to respond to potential threats is constantly being evaluated and updated.
Taylor, R. W., & Swanson, C. R. (2019). Terrorism, Intelligence, and Homeland Security (2nd ed.). Pearson
Response #2 (Tomesha): Describe the creation and role of the Department of homeland Security. Explain how terrorist attacks on 9/11 impacted the creation of the DHS and details the five missions of the DHS. Explore the role of FEMA and the role of National Infrastructure Protection Plan in protecting the US from Terrorism
On November 25, 2002, President George W Bush signed the Homeland Security Act. This act was assigned after the 9/11 attack to make America/ Americans (feel) safe. The attacks on 9/11 made DHS more aware of everything that’s going on in the US, the act has its pros by adding to security measures throughout the US and for becoming aware. The goal was to secure borders and infrastructures by managing immigration, customs and border patrol. Being prepared for disasters and effective adequate reactions by training/preparing first responders and FEMA workers. Investigating and distributing knowledge is known as Intelligence synthesis. Counterterrorism is a very essential role in HS, this is where incidents are responded to in a timely matter, or they are prevented from happening. Communication is very important. It is aided by HS and communication is kept intact between other agencies involved. The Department of Homeland Security oversees agencies such as TSA, Secret Services, coast guards etc. Preventing, shielding and responding are the focus points of FEMA for protecting the US. The National Infrastructure Protection Plan focuses on safeguarding and developing the strength of critical structure among the homelands.
Taylor, R. W., & Swanson, C. R. (2018). Terrorism, Intelligence and Homeland Security (2nd ed.). Pearson Education (US).


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