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HSE 470 Final Paper: Intro, Outline, Closing and References
In this assignment, students should create a well-developed thesis statement that encompasses the focus of their final paper. An outline of the final assignment should be developed. This should include the outline structure using Roman numerals with headings and subheadings and includes many details.
·Intro – Include thesis statement (Do your best here.  I know this will change. Since you’ve collected a few sources and started working on your project, do what you can to write your intro paragraph here, including your thesis statement.)
·Body – Use subheadings to divide ideas and content. (Use appropriate Roman numerals and letters here.  Separate your ideas.  You are not required to write full paragraphs.  I would like to see a couple of full sentences as you introduce the main topic of the paragraph.  You can then lay out simple topics that should be addressed iEn your paragraph.)
·Conclusion – Brief summary of the ideas in your paper (Again, do your best here.  Restate your thesis, and quickly summarize the main points in your paper.)
Include an APA formatted cover page.  You will also include a reference page with the references used on your annotated bibliography.  Do not include the annotations.  I only need the reference list in alphabetical order (standard reference page).
Review the sample outline sent by your instructor in this week’s announcement. (Attached to post).
Annotated Bibliography: The threats associated with Al Qaeda partnering with terror groups in Africa in terms of U.S. Homeland security.
Agbiboa, D. (2015). Shifting the Battleground: The Transformation of Al-Shabab and the Growing Influence of Al-Qaeda in East Africa and the Horn.Politikon,42(2), 177–194. .
The article explores the transformation of Al-Shabab from a Somali nationalist organization to a global terrorist group, focusing on the ‘universal/abstract’ versus ‘strategic’ discourse. It argues that Al-Shabab’s Somali nationalism aligns with Al-Qaeda’s ideology of restoring Islamic power globally, thereby rolling back foreign influence, particularly the USA. The article also highlights Al-Shabab’s growing capability to shift battlegrounds and strike at enemy targets outside Somalia, indicating its evolution as a transnational terrorist group with deepening ties to Al-Qaeda and its global jihadist movement. The Westgate attack, aimed at driving out forces of the African Union Mission in Somalia, highlights Al-Shabab’s growing capability to strike at enemy targets outside Somalia.
Allen, N. D. F. (2018). Assessing a Decade of U.S. Military Strategy in Africa.Orbis,62(4), 655–669. .
The article examines the current U.S. military strategy in Africa, focusing on its ability to neutralize transnational threats and contribute to political stability. It finds mixed performance, with recent successes in containing al Qaeda and Islamic State affiliated groups like Al-Shabaab potentially compromising long-term regional security. The U.S. has significantly increased its military presence in Africa over the past decade, establishing a new permanent command, providing security assistance, and introducing new tactics. However, the effectiveness of this increased engagement in Africa remains uncertain. The article recommends enhancing the U.S. and other regional actors’ armed forces to better combat terrorism and manage political risks.
ALVI, H. (2019). Terrorism in Africa: The Rise of Islamist Extremism and Jihadism.Insight Turkey,21(1), 111–132. .
This chapter explores how Al-Qaeda has historically used Africa as a hub for terrorism, with the U.S. Embassy bombings in 1998 highlighting its presence in the region. This strategic move by Bin Laden led to major counter-terrorism operations in Africa for the US homeland security. According to the study, the link between al-Qaeda and Jihadist terrorism in Africa dates back to the Soviet Union’s fight against Afghanistan. However, if improvements in human security, economies, politics, education, conflict resolution, and wealth distribution are not addressed, Africa may continue to experience a history of being Al-Qaeda’s safe landscape for terrorism.
Debisa, N. G. (2021). Security diplomacy as a response to Horn of Africa’s security complex: Ethio-US partnership against al-Shabaab.Cogent Social Sciences,7(1), 1893423. .
The United States and other powerful nations in the Horn of Africa have been actively working to counter the threat of al-Shabaab, a terrorist group. Despite the ongoing efforts, the intensity of the threat from al-Shabaab has increased, and its tactics have evolved over time. This qualitative research to explore the Ethio-US counterterrorism partnership in the Horn of Africa. The study found that the Ethio-US partnership, along with other organizations, has maintained multilateral and bilateral cooperation against al-Shabaab. Collective counterterrorism has driven al-Shabaab from the center, leading to the liberation of many districts in Somalia. However, the counterterrorism intervention has not been successful due to various internal and external factors.
Griffin, C. (2018). Trump and the Al Qaeda and ISIS Networks in Africa.Revue LISA / LISA E-Journal,vol. XVI-n°2. .
Griffin’s (2018) explores how the US has shifted its military policy in Africa, focusing on counterterrorism against Al Qaeda and ISIS. This policy contrasts with the reality on the ground, where the US considers the war on terrorism there to be strategically important. The presence of the US Army in Somalia, Libya, Niger, and Nigeria demonstrates that Trump carried over some of the active military policies of George W. Bush and Barack Obama. However, Trump changed the US strategy from an emphasis on foreign aid and peacekeeping to a focus on using significant military force and firepower to defeat Al Qaeda and ISIS terrorist groups. The wars in Africa fit into Trump’s worldwide war on terrorism aimed at destroying Al Qaeda and ISIS to keep America’s homeland security.
Humud, C. E. (2016).Al Qaeda and US Policy: Middle East and Africa (Vol. 43756). Congressional Research Service.
This report examines the threats posed by these Al Qaeda affiliates in Middle East and Africa to the United States homeland security and the US approach to responding to individual group threats. The US is facing an increasing threat from Al Qaeda affiliates in the Middle East and Africa, despite its efforts to combat Al Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The network maintains several affiliates in the region (Middle East and Africa), including Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, and Al Shabaab.
Joseph, D., & Maruf, H. (2018).Inside Al-Shabaab: the secret history of Al-Qaeda’s most powerful ally. Indiana University Press.
The study looks into Al-Shabaab’s ties to Al-Qaeda. This African Islamist group is a big risk to peace in the Horn of Africa. Their rules on clothes, media, sports, speech, and prayer are strict. If a Somali person disagrees or does not follow the rules, they face backlash or even death. The study also looks at America’s fight against Al-Shabaab. The 2006 Ethiopian attack on Somalia helped this fight and various things influenced it. These include diplomatic messages, notes from Osama bin Laden’s hiding place, court info from the cases of American Al-Shabaab members, and emails from Hillary Clinton’s time as Secretary of State.
McQuaid, J., Schroden, J., Faber, P. G., Hammerberg, K., Powell, A., Gold, Z., Knoll, D. L., & Rosenau, W. (2019, December 4).The US campaign against al-Qaeda, 2001-16: an assessment.; Edward Elgar Publishing. .
This research discusses that for nearly twenty years, the US has been fighting Islamist terrorism using their national security tools. They have been campaigning against terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State. They also target Al-Qaeda’s allies in places like Afghanistan, the Middle East, and Africa. For example, the Al-Shabaab. The research then talks about a review on how to defeat Al-Qaeda. It was based on a study that Congress asked for in 2017, which used many national security tools such as: case studies, security intelligence in places where Al-Qaeda are located, and a list of US-led actions and programs.
5. Final Project: Intro, Outline, Closing, and References


15 points

20 points

Thesis Statement

Thesis statement mostly includes elements of what essay will be about.

Well- developed thesis statement that encompasses what the essay will be about.

Concluding Statement

Concluding statement mostly reviews subject and comes to a logical conclusion.

Concluding statement reviews subject and comes to a logical conclusion.

Headings and Subheadings

Mostly describes each header and associated sub-headers in the outline.

Describes each header and associated sub-headers in the outline.

Format of Outline

Mostly follows the example using the five-paragraph outline structure using Roman numerals (Intro, body with three subheadings, and conclusion) with headings and subheadings and includes details.

Follows the example using the five-paragraph outline structure using Roman numerals (Intro, body with three subheadings, and conclusion) with headings and subheadings and includes many details.


Very few grammatical mistakes throughout.

No major grammatical errors throughout.


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