EGN4950C Component Testing and Calibration| Type of Sensor

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A sensor is a device that acquires a physical parameter and converts it into a signal suitable for processing. The signal processing could be optical, electrical or even mechanical. Sensors are embedded in systems and applications with the aim of automating different systems. Temperature sensors are used in chemical processing plants, automobile engines, appliances, and other applications that require temperature monitoring. The light sensors are used in cameras, infrared detectors and ambient lighting applications. The sensors are composed of photoconductors such as photoresistors, photodiodes, or phototransistors. The ultrasonic sensors are used for position measurements. The sound waves emitted are done in the frequency range of 2- 15 Megahertz. It uses the Sonar and Radar technology.  The photogates are used in counting applications where one may require to obtain a period of a given motion. The infrared transmitter and receiver at opposite ends of the sensor and the time at which light is broken is thereafter recorded.
The American National Standards Institute defines the sensor as a device that provides a usable output to a specified measured parameter such as,

PING SENSOR [Ultrasonic Module HC-SR04]
Component Description
Ultrasonic module HC-SR04 is a range finder component that detects objects within a given range as specified in the datasheet. The interface output formats from the sensor are the pulse width output, analog voltage output, and serial digital output. The object being detected needs to be the object closest to the sensor on its path. The ultrasonic module can be referred to as a sound sensor or a ping sensor. The sensor tends to operate at frequencies higher than those of human hearing. A human being can hear sound frequencies in the range of 20Hz- 40kHz. There are two major sections in the sensor, the trigger and the echo. The trigger sends out a sound wave at a particular frequency. The sensor keeps track of the time between transmission of the sound wave and the sound wave echo. The distance is, therefore, obtained as

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These sensors detect sounds using a cone of detection and the cone angle tends to vary with the distance. The ability to detect an object on the path depends on the object orientation to the sensor. Any object that does not fall within the range of the sensor cone of detection is not spotted at all. The effectual angle of the cone of detection is usually at less than 150.  The component can be used to detect objects in a specified range as desired in the project.

Key Information from the data sheet
Wire connectivity and product features

Power Supply

+5V DC

Quiescent Current

< 2mA

Working Current


Effectual Angle


Ranging Distance

2-400 cm


0.3 cm

Measuring Angle


Trigger Input Pulse Width



45mm x 20 mm x 15mm


~ 10g

It works by transmitting an ultrasonic burst and providing an output pulse that corresponds to the time required for the burst echo to return to the sensor. The distance to the target can easily be calculated by measuring the echo pulse. The PING sensor emits a short ultrasonic burst and waits for an echo from the echo point. The ultrasonic burst travels through the air at about 1130 feet per second, hits an object and then bounces back to the sensor. The PING sensor provides an output pulse to the host that will terminate when the echo is detected, so that the width of the pulse corresponds to the distance of the target.
The tests were carried out in Proteus 8 Professional using the HC-SR04 and the Arduino Uno and a virtual terminal to display the serial output.

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Testing Code:
//defining the pins on the Arduino board
const int trigPin=7;
const int echoPin=6;
//to define the distance variables and time variables
long duration;int distance;
void setup() {// setting pinmodes for the constant pinspinMode(trigPin,OUTPUT);pinMode(echoPin,INPUT);
//start the serial communication
Serial.begin(9600);}void loop() { //inserting the system code here: digitalWrite(trigPin,LOW); delayMicroseconds(2);  //to set the trigger Pin ON for some time
digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);
digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
//Reading input from the test pin using the EchoPin
//Printing out the distance on serial monitor (Virtual Monitor)
Serial.print(“Distance”);  Serial.print(distance);}

Component design
The temperature sensor MCP9700 series is designed by the Microchip company. It is a low power linear active thermistor Integrated Circuit. It belongs to the family of analog temperature sensors that convert the temperature in the surrounding to an analog voltage. The sensor is mainly used in home appliances to detect overheating and trigger a fan or collection of heat by the heat sinks. The sensor is also used in office equipment, battery systems and portable equipment, hard disk drives and other PC peripherals and the general-purpose temperature monitoring. The IC uses an internal diode to compute the temperature in the surrounding. The diode electrical characteristics have a temperature coefficient that provides temperature in a given range.

All the temperature and power ratings of the sensor are provided in the data sheet attached to this report. There are different types of temperature sensors. They are thermocouples, resistance temperature detectors, thermistors, infrared sensors, and semiconductors. Some of the common temperature sensor vendors are Watlow, Texas Instrument, National Semiconductor, Maxim, Omega, and Pyrotek. Some of the factors to consider when making a choice of the temperature sensor are low power consumption, serial interface, small, accurate, wide temperature range, the I2C interface, and temperature alarms.
The IC sensor error is obtained as,
Key information from the data sheet
Some of the key features of the MCP9700/01 are:
5-pin SC-70 Package
3-pin TO-92 Package
5-pin SOT-23 Package
Operating temperature range: -400C to 1250C
The temperature coefficient: 19.5mV/0C for the MCP9701
The temperature coefficient: 10mV/0C for the MCP9700
Low power: 6 micro Amperes (type)
The IC temperature sensor is designed to drive large capacitive loads. The sensors are in turn immune to the board parasitic capacitance, which allows the sensors to be remotely located and to drive long PCB trace or shielded cables to the ADC.

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Tests were run on Proteus 8 Professional. The input temperature sensor used was the MCP9701. The sensor was tested over a range of temperatures and the sensor converted the values to a voltage range of 2.3 volts to 5.5 volts on the ideal state. My code calibrates the system sensor to read values in a range of 0 to 5 volts.

When simulation is run,
The test code used was…

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